By Cicero S. Vaucher
Frequency synthesizers are an important development block of RF communique items. they are often present in conventional customer items, in own verbal exchange platforms, and in optical communique apparatus. in view that frequency synthesizers are utilized in many alternative purposes, various functionality elements may have to be thought of in each one case. the most physique of the textual content describes a conceptual framework for studying the functionality of PLL frequency synthesizers, and offers optimization tactics for the various functionality features. The research of the PLL houses is played with using the open-loop bandwidth and section margin thoughts, to let the effect of higher-order poles to be taken into consideration from the start of the layout technique. The theoretical process research is complemented through descriptions of leading edge process and development block architectures, through circuit implementations in bipolar and CMOS applied sciences, and by means of size effects. Architectures for RF Frequency Synthesizers comprises uncomplicated details for the newbie in addition to in-depth wisdom for the skilled clothier. it truly is generally illustrated with useful layout examples utilized in commercial products.
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Extra info for Architectures for RF Frequency Synthesizers
Vaucher, “An Adaptive PLL Tuning System Architecture Combining High Spectral Purity and Fast Settling Time,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 490–502, Apr. 2000. S. Vaucher and Z. 8GHz Programmable Divider in Standard CMOS Technology,” in Proc. of the 25th European Solid-State Circuits Conference (ESSCIRC), 1999, vol. 25, pp. 406–409. S. , “A Family of low power truly-modular Programmable Dividers in Standard CMOS Technology,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 35, no.
Direct mixing superposes the phase noise sidebands of the LO into the desired signal during the frequency conversion process from 22 Tuning System Specifications Reciprocal mixing, on the other hand, consists of mixing of the signal at with the LO signal at Similarly to direct mixing, the LO phase noise sidebands are superposed on the down-converted signal which lies at This process superposes a portion of the phase-noise sidebands of the LO on the signal at namely phase noise components at offset frequencies from , Degradation of the desired signal at is a function of the amplitude of the adjacent signal at and of the magnitude of the LO phase noise sidebands.
4 The Phase-Frequency Detector/Charge-Pump Combination The block diagram of a common implementation of the phase-frequency detector is presented in Figure 3-2. It consists of two D-type flip-flops (D-FF) which have their D inputs connected to the active level. There are many circuit implementations of a PFD which provide the same functionality [1,5,7,8]. The main advantage of the D-FF based implementation is its compactness. The upper D-FF, which is clocked by generates the up signal. The lower D-FF, clocked by generates the down signal.