By D. J. O’Connor (auth.)
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A and Miss C (the 'object' being different in each case). And yet evil, and indeed the same kind of evil, is involved in both actions. Thus, unless 'object' or 'objective' (oijectum) is to be taken in the question-begging sense of' morally proper object', the distinction seems useless for his purpose of distinguishing good actions from bad. He discusses the question of whether every human action must be good or bad, or whether some can be morally indifferent. He answers that some actions can be indifferent 'according to their species', that is, considered as types of human action.
D) One should not kill one's father. It is not clear if they are all supposed to be the product of synderesis. (c) and (d) seem derivative rather than basic moral principles and could well be disputed unless they are so qualified as to make them empty tautologies. (a) seems in fact to be an empty tautology and, unless we define the divine precepts to be good, (b) may well be disputed also. In short, St. Thomas' practical principles seem to be in the same case as his basic principles of speculative reason: either they are empty or they can be disputed and shown to be open to exception.
N But there is more to St. Thomas' account of will than this. The will has two kinds of potentiality: it can either act or remain inactive, and if it does act, it has usually several ways of doing so. If A, B, and C are open to me as possible choices, I have freedom at two levels, so to speak.