By F. S. Bodenheimer (auth.)
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The question, however, as to what should be understood by life-history has recently undergone many changes. It is not any longer restricted to the description of stages and of parasites and predators. The abundance of recent methodological achievements is large. Only a few of the more important implications will here be discussed. Exact determination, description of all stages and ages, observations on their duration in the field as well as under experimental conditions in the laboratory, observations on reproduction and fertility on normal and occasional food (qualitatively and quantitatively, and especially on nutritional mortality), and statistical measurements of environmental resistance are still standard requirements and there is no need to dwell on them.
The sum of effective temperatures in late spring (May-June) permits the development, but not the full maturation, of one generation. This spring period coincides with the season of aphid abundance. The sum of effective temperatures during the autumn period (September- October) is quite insufficient for the formation of one full generation. The life-cycle comprises one spring generation which migrates to mountain-tops in late summer and remains there beneath stones in aggregations in semi-torpor.
T1v• tW\Ut1\TY Fig. 8. Ecoclimograms of Coccinella septempunctata in various zoogeographic;:al regions of the Palaearktis (From BoDENHEIMER). The lower dotted line indicates the lower temperature threshold, the upper one the begin of uncomfortable high temperatures. The rectangle indicates the zone of optimal climatic conditions. 48 form the first generation, the adults of which appear in April. A small number of the beetles of the first generation oviposit in May. Less than 1% of these eggs develop successfully into adults, and most of these beetles die before the beginning of oviposition.