By Roger French
В этом исследовании автор показывает, что древнее естествознание было собранием и представлением историй и феноменов, достойных упоминания философами, популяризаторами или торговцами чудесами. В этой книге исследуются отношения между физическим миром, богами, греческой философией и целями тех, кто выражал весьма различные понятия о «природе». Основное внимание автора уделено «Истории животных» Аристотеля, «Естественной истории растений» Теофраста, «Географии» Страбона, а также, в некоторой степени, «Естественной истории» Плиния Старшего. Одна из основных тем книги - то, как к естествознанию относились различные общества: греки, римляне, евреи и христиане.Образцы сканов:
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Extra info for Ancient Natural History
Since the time of the year was frequently denoted by the time of the rising and setting of constellations, the seasonal appearance of important winds could also be remembered by practical people on the same basis. 81 Another part of non-philosophical Greek life to which Aristotle gave a naturalphilosophical framework was the study of portents. We saw above that the 26 ARISTOTLE AND THE NATURES OF THINGS supposed action of the gods had a role to play in the formation of natural philosophy. Here we should note that the gods’ messages (like those supposedly carried by Iris) were also important.
The most active was the Hot. When the natural heat of a moist body is overcome by external heat, says Aristotle,91 the result is putrefaction. In contrast, when the natural heat of an object perfects the passive qualities, most often the Cold and the Moist, then true concoction occurs. This is the process by which a thing becomes itself, that is, by which its ‘nature’ is expressed. Aristotle is arguing in a characteristic way for a process between opposites. Corruption and generation are opposites.
109 Apart from these sophistications of technique, Aristotle says110 that his pre-decessors considered the human soul only, and thus (by implication) concentrated their attention on perception and reason. But Aristotle thought that all living things had a soul of one sort or another, and while plants simply grew, nourished and generated themselves, animals additionally perceived, remembered and moved, and man reasoned. It seemed then that reason was only one part of the soul and that in all of its other actions the soul required a material body.