By Yuri Bregel
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Extra info for An Historical Atlas of Central Asia
These conquests were achieved under the command of the viceroy of Khorasan, Qutayba b. Muslim, who was appointed to this post in 705. By that time the Islamization of Iran, conquered by the Arabs half a century earlier, was already well advanced, and recently converted Persians sometimes played an important role in Qutayba’s campaigns, so that some modern scholars prefer to use the expression “Islamic conquest” (instead of “Arab conquest”) of Central Asia. Qutayba took advantage of the total lack of unity among the local rulers, who not only often failed to come to one other’s help in the face of the Arab attacks but sometimes even assisted the conquerors.
THE FIRST HALF OF THE 8TH CENTURY: THE ARAB CONQUESTS, TÜRKS, TANG, AND TIBET E 19 © Yuri Bregel 2003 D 20 10. FROM MID-8TH TO THE END OF THE 9TH CENTURY: THE EARLY ISLAMIC PERIOD IN THE WEST, THE QARLUQS AND UYGHURS IN THE EAST Abu Muslim, who led the revolution in Mavarannahr and Khorasan at the end of the 740s that brought to power the new #Abbasid dynasty of the caliphs, became the first #Abbasid viceroy in Khorasan. He subdued Soghdiana and Tokharistan and enjoyed absolute power over these provinces.
The first raid during which the Arabs spent the winter in Mavarannahr without returning to Merv took place under the governor of Khorasan Salm b. Ziyad in 680-681. This time the city of Bukhara was captured, but the Arabs did not remain there and went to Samarqand, where they also received tribute; then they went to Khojanda, from which they were repulsed. During the civil war in the Caliphate in the 680s-690s a rebel commander Musa b. #Abdallah took possession of Termez and remained there for fifteen years, until 704, successfully repulsing both the Arab and the Soghdian attempts to dislodge him.